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All these devices can charge from different energy sources in their vicinity.
Depending on the available energy source, a device will require integration of an energy harvester such as a PV cell, thermoelectric generator, piezo material, electromagnetic transducer, or antenna.
One more necessary component is a power management unit, which optimizes the energy transfer to the storage element (rechargeable battery, supercapacitor, etc.) and supplies the power system (the application). Such a solution provides continuous power for years and solves the bottleneck of replacing batteries.
To see how this works, let’s consider a smartwatch, which can recharge from indoor and/or outdoor light. Three major elements are needed for this technology to work in a smartwatch platform:
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